The release of the first human reference genome in 2003 marked the beginning of the post-genomics era when genetics progressed beyond gene-centered analyses to a myriad of omics approaches. Genome sequencing technologies have advanced dramatically from Sanger, second/next-generation, to third-generation sequencing platforms. Also, genome assembly methods and tools have evolved contemporaneously, resulting in a dramatic drop in genome assembly cost. Consequently, more than 360 plant species’ genomes have been assembled ever since the first plant genome, Arabidopsis thaliana, was published in 2000.
In recent years, genetics and genomics has played an important role in facilitating the genetic improvement of plants. Different tools have been developed to examine the structure, function, and properties of genes controlling complex traits. The genetic diversity of germplasm found in existing gene banks through different breeding populations such as core collections, nested association mapping panels, mutants, recombinant inbred lines, and multiparent advance generation intercross populations in germplasm banks served as sources of desirable alleles for plant breeding.